I intended to start my review with our atmosphere's evolution, but in working on that post I realized there's an even more fundamental evolution to consider. In this post will take it down to basic building blocks, namely a lecture given by Dr. Robert Hazen: "The Story of Earth: How Life and Rocks Co-Evolved".
You can find the lecture notes and information regarding Dr. Robert M. Hazen and his work below this video.
Then Graphite at 4,000° above absolute zero.
0.85 to 0.542 million years ago